Sony announced in January that due to the shortage of PS5 game console parts, production cannot be increased in the short term. In order to alleviate the needs of players, it will continue to produce the previous generation of PS4 series game consoles, with a planned output of 1 million units. . Sony hasn’t announced when the PS4 will be discontinued, but at least after 2022.
According to the “Economic Daily”, because the PS4 is an older model, the production cost of related parts and equipment costs are low, and the profit of the product will be higher than that of the PS5 . Therefore, the assembly plants Hon Hai and Pegatron, the power supply suppliers Delta and Qundian, as well as the exclusive lens supplier Jin Guoguang, and the control chip manufacturer Genesys, will all benefit.
The PS4 game console first launched in 2013 and has sold more than 116 million units worldwide to date . The source pointed out that the Sony PS5 is currently assembled exclusively by Hon Hai, while the PS4 is jointly assembled by Hon Hai and Pegatron.
Specifically, the Sony PlayStation series of consoles are mainly produced by the Foxconn factory in Yantai, Shandong . In addition to making game consoles for Sony, Hon Hai also produces the Switch series of game consoles for Nintendo, mainly by Hon Hai’s Hongzhun OEM.
In terms of Pegatron, the current game consoles are mainly produced in the Suzhou factory. In addition to assembling the PS4, it also exclusively manufactures the Microsoft Xbox Series X / S series.
Delta and Qundian are the PS4 power supply suppliers, and the optical lens factory Jin Guoguang is the exclusive supplier of PS4 lenses. As Sony continues to produce PS4 game consoles, the related supply chain will benefit.
Apple is widely expected to cancel the bangs design on the iPhone 14 Pro model, but there are conflicting rumors about the new design. Early rumors suggested that Apple would use a punch-hole design and that Face ID would somehow move entirely under the display, and later rumors of a pill-shaped cutout.
▲ It is worth mentioning that the picture attached by Ross Young is reported to be using Huawei P40 Pro PS.
Now, display industry analyst Ross Young claims that the iPhone 14 Pro models will feature both circular and pill-shaped punch holes near the top of the display, creating an “exclamation mark”-like shape . According to Ross Young, the circular punch hole will house a Face ID dot-matrix projector, while the pill-shaped punch hole is said to house at least the front-facing camera and the Face ID infrared camera.
Due to the round and pill-shaped punch holes, the iPhone 14 Pro models are not expected to have built-in Face ID under the screen, as some previous rumors had suggested. Ross Young said the infrared camera won’t be moved under the display until 2023 or 2024 , suggesting that Face ID won’t be fully under the display until the iPhone 15 Pro or iPhone 16 Pro. And well-known Apple analyst Ming-Chi Kuo also previously claimed that Face ID will not be moved under the display until 2023.
The new punch-hole design is rumored to be suitable for the 6.1-inch iPhone 14 Pro and 6.7-inch iPhone 14 Pro Max, and Apple is expected to release the 6.1-inch iPhone 14 and 6.7-inch iPhone 14 Max models in September, continuing to use bangs design.
Ross Young is a relatively reliable source of information about displays related to Apple products. For example, last year he accurately predicted that the new iPad mini would feature an 8.3-inch display and eliminate the Home button, and he was the first to reveal that the 14-inch and 16-inch MacBook Pros would feature ProMotion displays.
According to the statistics of the national online car-hailing supervision information exchange platform, as of December 31, 2021, a total of 258 online car-hailing platform companies across the country have obtained online car-hailing platform business licenses, an increase of 3 from the previous month; A total of 3.948 million online car-hailing driver’s licenses and 1.558 million vehicle transport licenses were issued in various regions, an increase of 2.2% and 3.9% respectively from the previous month. In December 2021, the national online car-hailing supervision information exchange platform received a total of 681.23 million orders, a month-on-month increase of 9.3%.
There are 17 online car-hailing platforms with more than 300,000 orders in December 2021. Among them, Xiangdao Chuxing has the highest order compliance rate, and Hua Xiaozhu Chuxing has the lowest . Compared with November, the order volume of Biangejuzi dropped from more than 300,000 orders in November to less than 300,000 orders, and the order volume of one new car-hailing platform, Zhaozhao Chuxing, exceeded 300,000 orders.
According to the order compliance rate (referring to the proportion of orders for which both drivers and vehicles are approved) from high to low, they are Xiangdao Travel, Ruqi Travel, T3 Travel, Carry China Travel, Landao Travel, Sunshine Travel, and Duo Travel. Appropriate E Line, Zhaozhao Travel, Timely Car, Shenzhou Special Car, Cao Cao Travel, Shouqi Car-hailing, Bangbanghang, Meituan Taxi, Wanshun Taxi, Didi Chuxing, Hua Xiaozhu Travel.
In December 2021, the top 3 order compliance rate growth rates were T3 Travel, Carrying China Travel, and Bangbang Travel; the last 3 increasing orders were Zhaozhao Travel (-3.3%), Timely Use of Cars (-6.2%), Shenzhou special car (-6.5%).
The major central cities, the order compliance rates in Guangzhou, Xiamen, Hangzhou, Shenzhen, Hefei, Nanchang, Chongqing, Zhengzhou, and Nanjing are all above 80%. In December 2021, the top three in terms of order compliance rate growth are Ningbo, Haikou, and Jinan ; the last three are Xi’an (-2.3%), Dalian (-2.4%), and Shijiazhuang (-3.3%).
Mobile QQ recently ushered in the 8.8.55 version update. Among them, the Android version installation package reaches 371MB, and the iOS version reaches 879MB after installation.
In this regard, some netizens analyzed the new version of the QQ installation package for Android and found that there was a built-in Unreal 4 engine of more than 100MB . This is a game development engine launched by Epic Games.
In response to related issues, the Unreal Engine official said on Zhihu that although UE4.27 has launched the UE as Lib function (documentation), it is still only a Beta version and is limited to the Windows platform and Single Viewport. This time QQ’s iOS embedded UE4 should be transformed by their team .
Unreal Engine also said that it is looking forward to future technical updates and optimizations. “I believe that there is still some room for technical optimization, and the rendering effect can continue to be improved.”
Happy mod learned that, according to Unreal Engine, QQ’s way of embedding UE4 is to embed a 3D rendering interaction function in the App , “It’s just that the rendering effect of UE4 is better, and the content development tool chain is better. The source code transformation is more convenient, so UE4 is used, so that there is no need to manually develop a series of 3D functions .”
In addition, some netizens found that as long as QQ has opened the cm show, it will load the library of the Unreal Engine over 100MB. It is speculated that mobile QQ uses Unreal 4 to serve the super QQ show, which is a new generation of user avatars after QQ show and cm show.
On January 12th, China Telecom and China Eastern Airlines released the e-surfing Internet products under the theme of “Enjoy the World in the Air”.
E-Surfing in-flight Internet products are first used on domestic flights (including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan)/Japan-Korea routes for which China Eastern Airlines has opened aviation Internet services, and support office and entertainment needs such as web browsing, instant messaging, email sending and receiving, online audio and video, and are provided to passengers. The in-flight Internet service experience that is approximately the same as that of the ground network improves the travel experience of passengers.
It is understood that since 2014, China Telecom, as the first basic telecommunications operator to receive approval from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the Civil Aviation Administration, has cooperated with many domestic airlines such as China Eastern Airlines to launch the global coverage of aviation Internet services. Up to now, the total number of domestic airlines on the network has exceeded 200, and the cumulative number of passengers served has exceeded 11 million.
Happymod learned that in 2021, the Civil Aviation Administration of China released the “China Civil Aviation New Generation Aviation Broadband Communication Technology Roadmap”, which clarifies the construction and application of the new generation aviation broadband communication system, which is an important foundation and technical support for building a smart civil aviation system.
Beijing time on January 13, according to foreign media reports, recently, the US space exploration technology company (SpaceX) shelved its plan to use the Falcon 9 rocket to launch 30,000 Starlink satellites into low-Earth orbit, instead Focus on the use of SpaceX starships to launch the second-generation “Starlink” broadband satellite constellation .
SpaceX express decision followed beyond the company’s expectations of development progress, means that it is possible “as early as March 2022 began to launch second-generation star chain system” .
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is expected to complete an environmental impact assessment of SpaceX’s launch facility in Boca Chica, Texas, on February 28. SpaceX’s previous permission only allowed the company to launch a Falcon 9-sized rocket at Boca Chica, not a behemoth like a Starship, so another environmental impact assessment was necessary. While it’s not illegal for SpaceX to build its own new launch pads and launch pads, the Federal Aviation Administration has warned that SpaceX can’t get a launch license if it fails an EIA.
SpaceX has now received approval from the Federal Communications Commission to deploy 4,408 satellites into low-Earth orbit at an altitude of about 550 kilometers, and has launched more than half of the satellites so far. The FCC has yet to approve the company’s larger, second-generation constellation plans. SpaceX is asking the Federal Communications Commission for expedited approval as the configuration for its Starship launch is finalized.
Just as terrestrial wireless networks meet customer needs by operating more than one generation of technology at the same time, SpaceX plans to use both networks to provide service, SpaceX will continue to maintain its first-generation system, launching appropriate replacement satellites to maintain its operational track. At the same time, the initial deployment of the second-generation system will also take place. To be clear, operating both systems at the same time does not mean that SpaceX will necessarily operate all satellites under its mandate in any region at any time. SpaceX customers will receive service from satellites from either system on their user terminals.
In August 2021, SpaceX proposed two configurations for the launch of the second-generation Starlink network, as a follow-up to the proposal originally submitted to the Federal Communications Commission in 2020. Both options are designed to place satellites more evenly in 9 to 12 inclined orbits, allowing for denser and more continuous coverage without the need for additional frequency bands or spacecraft.
SpaceX has said earlier that the use of Starship to launch Starlink satellites is their first choice, and will launch 29,988 satellites into nine inclined orbits at altitudes between 340 and 614 kilometers. The currently abandoned Falcon 9 launch plan is to deploy 29,996 satellites in 12 inclined orbits at altitudes between 328 and 614 kilometers.
Other rivals, including Amazon.com Inc., have called on the FCC to reject SpaceX’s revised plan, arguing that licensing multiple configurations would encourage speculative use by future constellation operators. SpaceX has previously said that Starlink’s goal is to provide broadband Internet connections to underserved areas of the planet and provide affordable services to urban areas, and the cash flow from selling satellite Internet services will be necessary to fund its Mars plans. condition.
However, the plan has also encountered criticism from many in different fields. Astronomers say the brightness of the tens of thousands of satellites in the Starlink program at optical and radio wavelengths will seriously affect scientific observations , and because Starlink satellites can change their orbits autonomously, observations cannot be scheduled to avoid them. Although Musk said that SpaceX will work on reducing the albedo of the satellites and will provide on-demand orientation adjustments for astronomical experiments if necessary, it remains to be seen how effective these measures will be.
In addition, thousands of satellites deployed in Earth orbit have raised concerns that failed satellites could not only become long-term space junk, but also pose a risk of collision. Despite Musk’s stated willingness to adjust the satellite’s orientation as needed, SpaceX did not move a satellite that nearly collided with a European satellite in the early days of the Starlink program. According to a document disclosed by the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in December 2021, the Permanent Mission of China to the United Nations in Vienna submitted a note verbale to the Secretary-General of the United Nations in early December 2021, stating that the Starlink satellites had twice within a year. Approaching the Tiangong space station, Tiangong carried out emergency collision avoidance operations twice on July 1 and October 21.
According to the website of the National Astronomical Observatory, the total mass of the Milky Way is a basic parameter of astrophysics and is directly related to many important astrophysical problems. Recently, an international team led by associate researcher Wang Jianling of the National Astronomical Observatory, in cooperation with the Paris Observatory Francois Hammer and Dr. Yang Yanbin, used the latest Gaia satellite observation data, combined with a new generation of dynamic modeling methods, to deduce the masses of baryonic matter and dark matter in the Milky Way. distributed. They found the Milky Way to be between 5 and 800 billion solar masses, suggesting that the Milky Way is lighter than previously measured . The results were recently published in the international journal Royal Monthly.
According to reports, due to the importance of the mass of the Milky Way, in the past few decades, scientists have been trying to accurately measure the mass of the Milky Way and its distribution. However, the results of previous studies are limited in many ways. First, due to the small observational sample data, the uncertainty of the research results is relatively large. Secondly, due to the lack of high-quality 6-dimensional phase space coordinates, we have to use simple assumptions to deduce the mass of the Milky Way, which leads to a large systematic error. In recent years, large-scale spectral surveys and the latest dynamic information released by the Gaia satellite have provided a large amount of high-quality celestial data of the Milky Way. Now is the golden age to study the structure, formation and evolution of the Milky Way. The first task before astronomers is how to use these high-quality data to study the structure and formation of the Milky Way. Dynamical modeling is one of the main tools for studying the structure of the Milky Way.
An international team composed of Dr. Wang Jianling of the National Astronomical Observatory and researchers Francois Hammer and Yang Yanbin of the Paris Observatory, France, used a new generation of dynamic modeling methods to model the dynamics of the Milky Way, and deduced the mass distribution of baryonic matter and dark matter in the Milky Way. They calculated the kinematics of 150 globular clusters in the Milky Way using the high-precision proper motion information of the Gaia satellite. Using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method (MCMC) to combine the rotation curves on the disk with information on the dynamics of the globular cluster. They adopted the method based on the action distribution function to model the dynamics of the Milky Way, overcoming a large number of previous assumptions, so as to obtain a more realistic distribution function of globular clusters and the distribution of matter in the Milky Way. They also used N-body numerical simulations to study the possible effects of the Large Magellanic Cloud passing through the Milky Way for the first time. As well as the use of real cosmological hydrodynamic simulation data to study the influence of a large number of unrelaxed substructures on the measurement results.
They found that the total mass of the Milky Way is in the range of 5 to 800 billion solar masses, suggesting that our galaxy is lighter than previously thought. This light-mass galaxy has implications for many astrophysical problems , such as the origin of dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way, and the problem of lost satellite galaxies in cosmology.
▲ Comparing the rotation curves of the Milky Way, the red dotted line is the measurement of the rotation curve of the Milky Way by Wang et al. (2022), and the black and pink dotted lines are the rotation curves contributed by dark matter and heavy matter | Source: National Astronomical Observatory website
Colorful announced the launch of three new GeForce RTX 3080 12G graphics cards on January 12, with overclocked versions available, priced from 9299 to 9999 yuan. This series of graphics cards has 8960 CUDA cores, equipped with 12GB GDDR6X video memory , and the performance has been slightly improved compared to the RTX 3080. The default acceleration frequency of the graphics card is 1710MHz, both of which are LHR-limited mining computing power versions, which are already on sale.
iGame GeForce RTX 3080 Ultra W OC 12G LHR
The graphics card follows the same series of white and gradient colors. It is equipped with two 90mm + one 80mm fans, and the radiator has 7 built-in heat pipes, which are soldered with reflow soldering process and fins. This graphics card is priced at 9699 yuan.
The graphics card is equipped with a 3×8pin power supply interface and supports one-key overclocking function, which can increase the frequency to 1740MHz.
Tomahawk GeForce RTX 3080 12G Deluxe Edition LHR
The product is equipped with three 90mm fans and uses a simple red and black casing. The graphics card radiator has 6 built-in 6mm heat pipes, and the height of the end radiator is longer than that of the PCB, which provides better heat dissipation. This graphics card provides a 2×8pin power supply interface with a core frequency of 1260MHz-1710MHz. This graphics card is priced at 9299 yuan.
iGame GeForce RTX 3080 Advanced OC 12G LHR
The flagship product released this time belongs to the iGame series. The graphics card has the iconic “big red circle” fan and uses a silver-black casing. The product is equipped with a 3×8pin power supply interface, supports one-key overclocking function, and the GPU frequency can be increased up to 1770MHz.
The product adopts the “Wind Catcher” fan blade developed by Colorful to achieve the increase of air intake and wind pressure. In addition, there is a vacuum VC soaking plate inside the radiator to improve heat dissipation efficiency; the PCB circuit adopts silver plating technology to improve stability and reduce current loss.
New on January 13 has it that the latest data from the Sensor Tower store intelligence platform shows that the revenue and downloads of Chinese mobile game products in overseas markets in December 2021.
According to statistics, the overseas revenue of Mihayou’s “Yuan Shen” mobile terminal exceeded 96 million US dollars , ranking first in the overseas mobile game revenue list.
The 11th season of “Call of Duty Mobile Games” was launched, and the current revenue increased by 15.4% month-on-month , returning to the top three in the revenue list. The total overseas revenue has exceeded 1.3 billion US dollars .
In terms of revenue growth, “Call of Duty Mobile Games” has the highest growth rate , and the English version of “High-level Figure Fantasy” has increased by more than US$5 million in 12 months after its launch in Europe and the United States, ranking third on the growth list.
Happymod learned that in terms of downloads, Tencent’s “PUBG Mobile” ranked first with nearly 12 million downloads . Adaric Music’s mobile music game “Piano Fire” surged to 10 million downloads, landing at No. 2 on the chart.
Today, the Xiaomi App Store announced the optimization measures for package transfer on the developer site , removing the limitation of 32-bit package body transfer , and developers can independently decide the type of APK to upload according to their actual situation .
However, it is officially recommended to upload 32-bit and 64-bit dual packages to improve the user experience. At the same time, Xiaomi App Store redesigned the overall UI and UE of the package, with a clearer structure and reduced cognitive costs.
In addition, the Xiaomi App Store has also upgraded the privacy detection service to help developers with privacy issues by providing privacy detection reports. The rectification guidance includes providing problem descriptions, rectification suggestions and self-inspection methods for problematic items, as well as self-inspection methods and rectification suggestions for undetected items.
IT House learned that the Xiaomi Mi 12 and 12 Pro are equipped with a new generation of Snapdragon 8 processors. This processor uses Samsung’s 4nm process and the new Armv9 instruction set. The Armv9 instruction set is the first major update to the instruction set since Arm released the Armv8 instruction set in 2011. At the same time, the Snapdragon 8 Gen 1 only supports three Cortex-A710 cores to run 32-bit applications.
Zhang Guoquan, director of Xiaomi’s mobile phone system software department, said on January 7 that the parallel release of Xiaomi 12 Pro series Android S + ArmV9, especially the 64-bit compatibility, has brought a lot of pressure to the application adaptation of the Android ecosystem and affected the three-party App freeze. Flashback and power consumption.
According to foreign media tomshardware news, the running score of Intel’s 12th-generation Alder Lake entry-level processor Celeron G6900 appeared on the Geekbench 5 website.
This processor uses Golden Cove core, dual-core dual-thread, L2 cache 1.25MB, L3 cache 4.0MB. The processor does not support the turbo function, and the main frequency only fluctuates around 3.5GHz , but it is installed on the ASRock Z690M Phantom Gaming 4 motherboard and can be overclocked to 4.5GHz by relying on the BFB function .
In terms of performance, the Celeron G6900 scored 1397 points for single-core and 2565 points for multi-core , of which the single-core performance was on the same level as the previous i9-10900K and lower than the AMD R7 5800X.
Happymod learned that the official price of this processor is $42 (about 267.54 yuan), but the retailer’s price is $59.99 (about 382.14 yuan).
But in the other news we earlier reported here on Happymod, Online news reported on January 13 that the latest masterpiece of Capcom’s “Monster Hunter” series “Monster Hunter: Rise” was officially unlocked and sold on the Steam platform today. The standard version in the country is 396 yuan, and the deluxe version is 465.3 yuan. Players who have pre-ordered have also Appearance equipment such as Hound and Elu cat can be obtained for free.
The game’s large-scale DLC “Dawn” will be released this summer, and the official will announce more related news in the spring. The Steam version of “Monster Hunter: Rise” will be able to play all the additional content released on the NS version at launch, including the upcoming update of “Sonic” linkage content, in addition to the content released in the end of February 2022 with the Switch version.
“Monster Hunter: Rise” this time on the PC platform, will add a series of special filters , including black and white, nostalgia, Japanese style, Sengoku (Japan) style and two movie styles. The game will support ultra-wide monitors with support for 4K resolutions, HD textures, high frame rate modes, keyboard and mouse operations, and voice chat.
As of press time, the Steam evaluation of this work is “mostly favorable”, and 77% of players have given this work a favorable review .
We learned that “Monster Hunter: Rise” was the first to be released exclusively on the Nintendo Switch platform on March 26, 2021, and its global sales exceeded 5 million in 10 days.
In the other news, IT House reported on January 13 that WeChat yesterday released the “Announcement on Governing Disorders in the Operation of Internet User Accounts”. Further standardize the operation of Internet user accounts.
The announcement pointed out that during the special work period, the WeChat platform continued to strengthen the management of illegal account name information , comprehensively standardize the use of account name information, and counterfeit the names of organizations such as party, government and military organs, enterprises and institutions, news media, etc. The identified accounts were dealt with strictly, and a number of accounts that were used without authorization and were associated with administrative divisions were cleaned up , using the banners of “XX Toutiao”, “XX Think Tank” and “XX News” to mislead the public with falsehoods , such as “Nanjing Toutiao” ” Handan News”, “China and Globalization Think Tank”, “College Entrance Examination Shandong”.
We learned that WeChat stated in the announcement that the WeChat platform has always attached great importance to and proactively dealt with accounts and content that use malicious marketing and other means to harvest traffic and gain attention. In this special action, the WeChat platform continued to increase governance. , Strictly deal with illegal accounts that use current affairs and social events to rub off on hot spots, and use the headline party to hype up illegal accounts.
According to reports, the WeChat platform will continue to optimize the management mechanism, continue to clean up all kinds of illegal accounts and content, and guide account entities to standardize account operations .
In other news, the realme GT2 Pro was officially released recently. It adopts Samsung 2K flexible straight screen / E4 / 120Hz / LTPO 2.0, and is adapted to the high frame rate mode of multiple games.
We learned that today, realme officially released the answer to the question:
1. Has LTPO stepless frame change been updated?
In the current software version, the second-generation LTPO function is already supported and effective. The frame rate display of the system is currently only the maximum frame rate of the software, and the dynamic LTPO variable frame display function will be brought to you in the next update .
2. Will it be updated to support more high frame rate games?
At present, Realme GT2 Pro already supports the high frame rate mode of “Honor of Kings” and “QQ Speed Mobile Games”. “Peace Elite” 90 frames will be supported after the next game version update , and Realme GT2 Pro is also in the second batch of compatible models in the “League of Legends Mobile Games” high frame rate mode.
3. Why does the game have a high frame rate or 60 frames?
In order to provide a more balanced performance experience, realme has specially customized an exclusive GT mode in the GT series products, allowing players to release the full chip performance with one click and obtain a more extreme gaming experience. At present, users who want to experience high frame rate games are recommended to open the GT mode to play the game . If the GT mode is not turned on, the maximum frame rate of the game will be limited by the system, which can achieve lower heat generation and longer game time.
4. When does 1000Hz touch take effect?
1000Hz Instantaneous Touch is optimized for scenarios where games require extremely fast response operations. Currently, it is automatically enabled in the following game scenarios:
When there are more than 4 people on the same screen in the team battle of “Honor of Kings”;
“Peace Elite” users turn on the magnifying mirror until the end of the mirror opening;
“League of Legends Mobile Games” in game games other than training camp;
The countdown time for the departure of “QQ Speed Mobile Games”.
At the same time, Realme GT2 Pro also supports the latest O-Sync overclocking response 2.0, which can be opened in the sidebar of the game interface, which can effectively improve the speed of touch response. League of Legends Mobile Games”, “QQ Speed Mobile Games” and many other mainstream games.
5. Where has the game space gone?
In the newly upgraded realme Ul3.0, the game space and the game center are merged . At the same time, users can also switch and set game functions in the sidebar of the game.
We earlier reported that Google launched the first beta version of Android 12L in December last year, bringing several optimizations and improvements to foldable devices and large-screen devices, and has released updates to many Pixel phones. .
Today, Android 12L released the Beta 2 version . There are not many functional changes in this update, mainly for bug fixes and with the latest January 2022 security patch.
We understands that starting with Beta 2, system behavior and APIs have been finalized . Developers can already adapt apps for Android 12L. Android 12L has a standard API level (API level 32).
Fixed an issue where the clock on the lock screen was not in the center of the screen.
Fixed an issue where all apps in the recent apps view were displayed as a black image with an “App unavailable” message.
Fixed using gestures to switch between apps, sometimes showing the image of the previous app state on part of the current app.
Fixed an issue where some icons on the lock screen were too small when viewed on a large screen.
Fixed an issue where sometimes the lock screen was not turned off after unlocking the device.
Fixed an issue that caused bitmap images to disappear or otherwise render incorrectly in widgets.
Android 12L Beta 2 has been pushed to a number of Pixel devices.